Here Odle had suffered massive trauma to his brain, and doctors had removed a grapefruit sized portion of his brain. Odle had also subsequently exhibited psychotic behavior, some of it while awaiting trial. Under these circumstances, the evidence before the trial court raised a bona fide doubt whether Odle was competent to stand trial, and inquiring into whether he possessed the mental acuity to participate in the proceedings was the reasonable and appropriate course of action. The state trial court’s failure to do so denied Odle his right to due process. The Court of Appeals remanded to the district court to grant the writ unless within sixty days the state trial court conducts a hearing and determines that Odle was competent at the time he was tried.